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# Surface tension temperature

Surface tension is dependent on temperature. For that reason, when a value is given for the surface tension of an interface, temperature must be explicitly stated. The general trend is that surface tension decreases with the increase of temperature, reaching a value of 0 at the critical temperature. For further details see Eötvös rule Purpose: The purpose of my project is to prove that as temperature increases, viscosity and surface tension both decrease, and to determine the relationship between viscosity and surface tension with a constant temperature. Procedure: 1). Surface tension: Put several identical glass cups on the table. Pour 0.2L water in each cup with different temperatures Effect of temperature on surface tension. Surface tension of water. Because intermolecular forces between water molecules are due to hydrogen bonds and these are high energy, surface tension for water is larger than many other liquids. See a diagram: Comparison of surface tension of water and other liquids. Measurement of surface tension. There.

### Surface tension - Wikipedi

touched to the surface of a tray of water in the previous activity. In the second petri dish, a layer of glass was placed over the thin oil layer so the oil did not have an exposed surface. In this manner, surface tension effects were eliminated. No fluid flows were observed, meaning that Student Reader - 1 Temperature Effects on Surface Tension The surface tension of polymers in a supercritical fluid is one of the most important physicochemical parameters in many engineering processes, such as microcellular foaming where the surface tension between a polymer melt and a fluid is a principal factor in determining cell nucleation and growth. This paper presents experimental results of the surface tension of polystyrene in supercritical. Surface tension results from the adhesive forces between the molecules. Following two important points can be used to explain the variation of almost all physical properties. 1. Pressure and molecular attraction tend to confine the molecules. 2. T.. Surface tension is caused by the inward attraction of molecules at a boundary. Surface tension is the energy required to stretch a unit change of surface area - and the surface tension will form a drop of liquid to a sphere since the sphere offers the smallest area for a definite volume Surface Tension of Water. The experimental data shown in these pages are freely available and have been published already in the DDB Explorer Edition.The data represent a small sub list of all available data in the Dortmund Data Bank.For more data or any further information please search the DDB or contact DDBST.. Componen

### Viscosity, Surface Tension and Temperature Science

1. Surface tension is dependent on temperature. The general trend is that surface tension decreases with the increase of temperature, reaching a value of 0 at thecritical temperature. γ = γo( 1- T/Tc)^n. is a constant for each liquid and n is an empirical factor, whose value is 11/9 for organic liquids. ====
2. The surface tension typically changes due to variations in solute concentration, surfactant concentration, and temperature variations along the interface. In some eutectics or multicomponent liquids, the direction of the gradient of surface tension tangential to the interface can be changed by altering the concentration of the solutes at the surface or by adding surfactants
3. Surface tension is then of order For van der Waals type interactions, At a temperature of 25 oC, kT is equal to 1/40 eV, which gives γ= 20 mJ /m2 2 2 U a γ≅ Uk≅ T U is the.
4. Surface energy in solids, surface tension in liquids and 'pressure defects' in real gases arise from long range intermolecular attractive forces which exist between all molecules. This article is concerned with the effect of temperature on the surface tension of liquids. The surface tension of a liquid can be defined a
5. Water has a surface tension of 0.07275 joule per square metre at 20 °C (68 °F). In comparison, organic liquids, such as benzene and alcohols, have lower surface tensions, whereas mercury has a higher surface tension. An increase in temperature lowers the net force of attraction among molecules and hence decreases surface tension
6. The surface tension decreases with temperature because the interactions inside the liquid are lower than the heat moving forces. According to Ward and Janz [6] and later to Kojima et al. [8, 9], the experimental measurement could be fitted by a linear law with a quite good correlation

### Surface Tension - University of Florid

• Surface Tension - Liquids surface tension - water, mercury, oils and more; Surface Tension of Water in contact with Air - Surface tension of water in contact with air for temperatures ranging 0 to 100 o C (32 to 212 o F) - in imperial units (BG units) and SI units; Weber Number - Introduction to the Weber Numbe
• Examples of Surface Tension . Drops of water. When using a water dropper, the water does not flow in a continuous stream, but rather in a series of drops. The shape of the drops is caused by the surface tension of the water. The only reason the drop of water isn't completely spherical is that the force of gravity pulling down on it
• ants, measuring surface energy, angle of contact, capillary action, bubbles, cylinders, Laplace's la
• Surface tension and interfacial tension exist when two phases are present, and the phases can be gas/oil, oil/water, or gas/water. The surface tension between gas and crude oil ranges from near zero to approximately 34 dynes/cm and is a function of pressure, temperature, and the composition of each phase
• Surface Tension of Water . The surface tension of water is 72 dynes/cm at 25°C . It would take a force of 72 dynes to break a surface film of water 1 cm long. The surface tension of water decreases significantly with temperature as shown in the graph. The surface tension arises from the polar nature of the water molecule

In general, the surface tension decreases with increasing temperature. As a result, the characteristics of surfactant containing liquids are significantly influenced by temperature changes. Depending on the product, the temperature influence can have a positiv or negative effect on required characteristics Surface tension is an effect where the surface of a liquid is strong. The surface can hold up a weight, and the surface of a water droplet holds the droplet together, in a ball shape. Some small things can float on a surface because of surface tension, even though they normally could not float Both surface tension and viscosity decreases with increase in temperature. This decreasing phenomenon occurs due to lowering of intermolecular force of attraction or cohesive force between liquid molecules as temperature increases. For vapour pres.. The surface tension characteristics of a fluidic substance stay basically stable, but can be changed by temperature variations, chemicals that modify the bonding characteristics of the molecules, oxidation and the presence of impurities. Let's consider the effects of these four conditions on surface tension: Temperature. As temperature. This is a table of surface tension values for some interfaces at the indicated temperatures. Note that the SI units millinewtons per meter (mN·m −1) are equivalent to the cgs units dynes per centimetre (dyn·cm −1). Surface tension for some interfaces Interface: Temperature

Surface tension is sensitive to curvature of the surface only for very small radii of curvature (see interfaces). The units of surface tension are mNm −1. The same arguments hold for the interface between two pure immiscible liquids. For such interfaces and for pure liquids in equilibrium with their vapor the excess free energy, σ, and the. Surface tension disinfectants: Disinfectants are usually solutions of low surface tension. This allow them to spread out on the cell walls of bacteria and disrupt them. Soaps and detergents: These help the cleaning of clothes by lowering the surface tension of the water so that it more readily soaks into pores and soiled areas

Simple Surface Tension Experiments. Water molecules like to stick together, creating surface tension where the water meets the air. This force can be fun to explore! Here are four surface tension experiments that are super-simple to set up and execute. Do all four for a morning full of science & fun! Magic Finger Surface Tension Experimen Compared to Viscosity, Surface Tension is a simpler phenomenon. It is basically stable, changed mostly by temperature and chemicals that modify the bonding characteristics of the molecules. Learn about viscosity & surface tension, units of measurement with BYJU'S David explains the concepts of surface tension, cohesion, and adhesion. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/tem.. SURFACE TENSION: Surface Tension is a property of liquid at rest by virtue of which a liquid surface gets contracted to a minimum area and behaves like a stretched membrane. An increase in temperature of water (or any liquid) leads to an increase in kinetic energy of molecules Surface Tension as a Function of Temperature and Concentration of Liquids. U. P. SHINDE, S. S. CHOUGULE, C. G. DIGHAVKAR, B. S. JAGADALE, D. K. HALWAR - 2 - mercury at room temperature has a surface tension of 0.487 N/m [2]. The increased temperature decreases the surface tension was reported by [3]

• Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. Effects of Temperature on Surface Tension Surface tension is dependent on temperature. For that reason, when a value is given for the surface tension of an interface, temperature must be explicitly stated
• The temperature of both liquids was 20 °C. We used water as the reference liquid with known surface tension (σ 1 = 72.75·10 −3 N/m at temperature 20 °C). Table 1 summarizes the mass of 100 drops of each liquid m 100, the mass of one drop of each liquid m 1 and the surface tension σ.
• You might have heard the term of surface tension in various chapters if you are a physics student. Imagine a water droplet on a leaf after a rain shower. The water creates stunning round droplets. All these things happen due to the surface tension of water. Thus, we will learn surface tension formula in this article

Surface Tension of Ethanol. The experimental data shown in these pages are freely available and have been published already in the DDB Explorer Edition.The data represent a small sub list of all available data in the Dortmund Data Bank.For more data or any further information please search the DDB or contact DDBST.. Componen Name: CAS Ref.-No. Surface tension @ 20 °C in mN/m: Temperature coefficient in mN/(m K) 1,2-Dichloro ethane: 107-06-2: 33.30-.1428: 1,2,3-Tribromo propan Purpose: The purpose of my project is to prove that as temperature increases, viscosity and surface tension both decrease, and to determine the relationship between viscosity and surface tension with a constant temperature. Procedure:1).Surface tension: Put several identical glass cups on the table. Pour 0.2L water in each cup with different temperatures [4,24] Surface tension of oils is measured at room temperature, however, frying process is conducted at temperatures between 150-180°C. For many pure liquids, an increase in temperature causes a linear decrease in the surface tension. Investigation of surface and interfacial tensions at high temperature is thus a key elemen IAPS issued a release on the temperature dependence of surface tension of an ordinary water substance in 1976. The equation for the surface tension recommended in the release is used also in the.

### Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Surface Tension of

1. ed by its chemical composition and its temperature. The following applies: The higher the temperature the lower the surface tension. Therefore it is important to indicate surface tension measuring values with the corresponding liquid temperature
2. Surface tension refers to the ability of a liquid to resist the force of gravity. For example, water forms droplets on a table because the water molecules at the surface group together against the force of gravity. Surface tension is what allows a denser object, such as an insect, to be able to float on the water's surface
3. Thus, the surface tension at room temperature can be estimated by these group contribution base methods. The problem is that how can we estimate temperature dependency of surface tension. For example, surface tension of Ethyl Acetate is 23.97dyne/cm at 20℃
4. Surface tension is defined as the force per unit length acting perpendicular on an imaginary line drawn on the liquid surface, tending to pull the surface apart along the line. Its unit is N m-1 and dimensional formula is MT-2. It depends on temperature. The surface tension of all liquids decreases linearly with temperature
5. Obviously, the surface tension decreases linearly with the rise of temperature. For a small range of temperature, the surface tension at T t at t ºC is T t = T 0 (1− α t) Where, T 0 is the surface tension at temperature 0ºC and α is the temperature coefficient of surface tension. It is to be noted that at the critical temperature, the.

A model of laser ablation with temperature-dependent material properties, vaporization, phase explosion and plasma shielding. Applied Physics A 2014 , 116 (1) , 273-285 Surface tension is the cohesion between molecules at the surface of the liquid that makes it have a strong surface. It is measured in N/m or dyn/cm. The formula for surface tension is

### What is the effect of temperature on surface tension? - Quor

Surface tension is a property that allows the surface of a liquid to behave somewhat as a trampoline does. When a person stands on a trampoline, the trampoline stretches downward a bit and, in so doing, exerts an upward elastic force on the person. This upward force balances the person's weight Surface Tension And Temperature The force acting at right angles to any tangential line drawn to the free surface of liquids is called surface tension of liquids. A liquid surface tends to shrink into the smallest possible area whereas the temperature is the measure of the heat of a body

### Surface Tension - Engineering ToolBo

• Surface tension of seawater was measured across a salinity range of 20 ⩽ S ⩽ 131 g/kg and a temperature range of 1 ⩽ t ⩽ 92 °C at atmospheric pressure using the Wilhelmy plate method. The uncertainty within measurements varied from 0.18 to 0.37 mN/m with the average uncertainty being 0.22 mN/m
• What is Surface Tension? According to the definition of surface tension, it is the phenomenon that occurs when the surface of a liquid is in contact with another phase (it can be a liquid as well). Liquids tend to acquire the least surface area possible. The surface of the liquid behaves like an elastic sheet
• Surface Tension. Surface tension is measured as the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit of area. The surface tension of a liquid results from an imbalance of intermolecular attractive forces, the cohesive forces between molecules: . A molecule in the bulk liquid experiences cohesive forces with other molecules in all directions
• surface tension effect [17] and surface layer effect [18]us-ing Landau theory based phenomenology. Phenomenologi-cal analyses suggested that, although the correlation effect and the depolarization ﬁeld effect always contribute to de-crease of the transition temperature, the surface tension ef
• Surface tension arises from cohesive forces between the liquid molecules. In the bulk, molecules are interacting equally with each other in all directions. However, at the surface, molecules don't have the same neighbors on all sides
• Surface tension At the interface between two materials physical properties change rapidly over distances com-parable to the molecular separation scale. Since a molecule at the interface is exposed to a different environment than inside the material, it will also have a different binding energy
• The maximum applied surface tension force, when alpha equals to 90°, gives the maximum weight of a drop of liquid with a given surface tension, thus . Having mass and density of the liquid, volume is trivial. In reality drop detaches where neck is formed, slightly below the end of tube, so diameter used should be less than tube diameter

Surface tension decreases with temperature from σ = 0.75 N m −1 at T = 278 K to σ = 0.70 N m −1 at T = 305 K (Vargaftik et al., 1983) Answer to: What is the effect of temperature on surface tension? By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework..

### Surface Tension of Water from Dortmund Data Ban

• surface-tension | definition: a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces | synonyms: interfacial surface tension, capillary action, interfacial tension, capillarity, physical phenomenon| antonyms: transparency, opacit
• by surface-active impurities, dissolved in the liquid, being swept around to the rear of the bubble (i.e. from top to bottom), until the surface-tension gradient set up by the accumulation of impurity balanced the viscous traction around the bubble. With enough surface-active material, the surface would be brought to rest relative to the bubble
• The liquid behaves as if its surface were covered with an elastic membrane. Water has a higher surface tension at room temperature compared to many other liquids. In SI, the surface tension is expressed as the force in newtons (N) required to break a film of 1 meter (m) in length. It is measured in N/m in SI and in dyn/cm in cgs
• The Meaning of Surface Tension and its Practical Applications. Surface tension is a physical phenomenon that we observe in our daily life. Raindrops take a spherical shape. 'tears of wine' are seen in a glass on pouring an alcoholic beverage in it, formation of spherical soap bubbles - all these are examples of surface tension
• Surface and interfacial tension are sensitive to temperature and pressure. In the case of temperature, surface tension has been shown experimentally to decrease nearly linearly with temperature. The increase in temperature causes a corresponding decrease in cohesive intermolecular forces and this surface tension decreases
• The ASTM method requires narrow standard temperature (23±2ºC) and relative humidity (50±5%) test conditions, due to the inverse temperature/ surface tension relationships of liquids. The dyne liquid solution (DLS) must readily wet the surface for the substrate material to be at a wetting tension equal to the surface tension of the DLS used

### What is the relation between surface tension and temperature

Surface tension is defined as the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid, or the force required to increase the length of a liquid surface by a given amount. This property results from the cohesive forces between molecules at the surface of a liquid, and it causes the surface of a liquid to behave like a stretched rubber membrane Alibaba.com offers 258 surface tension temperature products Surface tension of a liquid is measured by the normal force acting per unit length. On either side of an imaginary line drawn on the free surface of a liquid, the direction of this force is perpendicular to the line and tangential to the free surface of liquid. Properties of Surface Tension. Scalar quantity. Temperature sensitive. Impurity. Surface tensiondecreases with increasing temperature of the liquid and its critical temperature is equal to zero. For many liquids formula applies:-d/dt [δ (M/p)2/3 = 2,12 (M- molecular weight, p- the density, t- temperature). Table water surface tension at the air boundar

### What Is the Marangoni Effect? - COMSOL Multiphysic

Surface‐tension data are reported for liquid Al2 O3, B2 O3, GeO2, P2 O5, and SiO2. Abnormal positive temperature coefficients for B2 O3, GeO2, and SiO2 are shown to be due mainly to changes in the li.. The surface tension between silicate liquid and gas has been measured for four lava compositions (limburgite to andesite) from 1,200° to 1,500° C. The magnitude of surface tension (γ) is in the range 350-370 dynes/cm. Variations found in γ as a function of liquid composition were small and had no obvious relation to liquid composition. γ was also found to vary little with furnace.

Surface Tension MCQ Questions and Answers Quiz 21. The surface tension of a liquid is T. the increase in its surface energy on increasing the surface area by A i Surface tension is a force which causes a layer of liquid to behave like an elastic sheet or skin. It is the high surface tension of water which allows insects to walk over it. These pond skaters have long hairy legs which allow them to spread their weight over a wide area

The surface tension of water provides the necessary wall tension for the formation of bubbles with water. The tendency to minimize that wall tension pulls the bubbles into spherical shapes (LaPlace's law).The interference colors indicate that the thickness of the soap film is on the order of a few wavelengths of visible light. Even though the soap film has less surface tension than pure water. The work that I do relies heavily on one quite well known property of liquids called 'Surface Tension' so that is the best place to start.One of the most interesting properties of water is the forces that act within it - called 'hydrogen bonding'.A water molecule is made up of two hydrogens which are covalently bonded to an oxygen molecule urface tension alues o some common test liuids or surface energy analysis DataPhysics Instruments GmbH • phone + 49 (0)711 77 05 56 0 www.dataphysics-instruments.com • sales@dataphysics-instruments.com Name CAS Ref.-No. Surface tension @ 20 °C in mN/m Temperature coefficient in mN/(m K) 1,2-Dichloro ethane 107-06-2 33.30 -0.142 Temperature has an effect on intermolecular forces: the higher the temperature, Surface tension and intermolecular forces are directly related. Answer b. The same trend in viscosity is seen as in surface tension, and for the same reason. Contributors

### The effect of temperature on surface tension

Surface tension measurements for wetting properties. From simple measurements of equilibrated surface tension, to more complex time dependent or temperature dependent relationships, we have a host of accessories which enable us to tightly control the conditions of measurement for your sample Because of surface tension, we observe objects float on liquids and insects walk on the surface of lakes, even though they may be far denser than the liquid. Surface tension is the product of Van der Waal forces. Since Van der Waal forces exist between the molecules of a single substance such as water, they are called inter-molecular forces Investigate the effects of temperature on the surface tension of a thin liquid Considering the absence of adequate models for surface tension, in this work, two equations relating surface tension and viscosity for pure metals are analyzed as a function of temperature. Regarding the Egry surface tension-viscosity relation for pure metals, a new relation equation for multicomponent alloys is proposed

Surface energy in solids, surface tension in liquids and 'pressure defects' in real gases arise from long range intermolecular attractive forces which exist between all molecules. This article is concerned with the effect of temperature on the surface tension of liquids Surface tension variation with temperature : From the Figure it can be seen that surface tension decreases as temperature increases. This is because cohesion forces decrease with thermal agitation The variation with temperature of the surface tension and density of some 14 non‐associated liquids has been investigated from 20° to within a few degrees of their normal boiling points. The power equations of Ferguson and of Kleeman which correlate surface tension with the reduced temperature,. Study Design Course of the test Apparatus - Tensiometer (model K8, KRÜSS) Test Condition - 20 °C ± 0.5 °C According to the guideline the concentration to use is depending on the water solubility of the test item. The test concentration should be 90 % of the saturation solubility in case the solubility value is below 1 g/L. Otherwise 1g/L will be used as test concentration

### surface tension Definition, Examples, & Facts Britannic

• Table 2. Pure component surface tension-temperature curve fit parameters. Component Tc (K) Vc (m 3/mol) ω water 647 5.60 x 10-5 0.345 glycerol 850 2.64 x 10-4 1.320 ethylene glycol 720 1.91 x 10-4 0.487 1-propanol 537 2.18 x 10-4 0.629 Table 3. Pure component critical temperature and volume and acentric factor. For water, values from IAPWS
• calculate its surface tension. The corresponding densities were measured previously in our laboratory [12]. 3. Results and Discussion The surface tension data are fitted by the following relation: σ(mN/m) =a +bw +cT(K) (1) where σ is the surface tension of the solution at the measured temperature, a, b i
• ation Effect of Gases 76 Contact Angle Phenomena 90 Surface Tension Correlation for Molten Metals 91 CONCLUSIONS 99 RECOMMENDATIONS 100 BIBLIOGRAPHY 102 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 106 APPENDIX 1 07 . 1 INTRODUCTION One of.
• Effect of Temperature on Surface Tension of Water: surface tension mN m-1: Temperature/ o C: As the temperature of the water increases from 0 to 100 o C, the surface tension of the water decreases from 75.6 to 58.9 mN m-1. When a liquid is heated, the particles making up the liquid gain energy and move faster
• g zero at its boiling point and desertion at decisive temperature

Surface tension is due to the force of cohesion between liquid particles at the free surface. A liquid molecule at the interior of the liquid are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random, because these molecules are attracted equally in all direction by the other surrounding molecules and is in equilibrium.When they reach free surface, there are no molecules above the. Viscosity, Surface Tension, Specific Density and Molecular Weight of Selected Liquids. print this sort order (table and references only - will open in new browser window) Name Molecular Formula CAS# Mol. Wt. Specific Density Surface Tension Viscosity; cP cs; Phenoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monophenyl ether) C 8 H 10 O 2 Surface tension decreases with rise in temperature, almost linearly. The decrease of surface tension with increase in temperature results because the kinetic energy (or speeds) of the molecules increases. Thus, the strength of intermolecular forces decreases resulting in the decrease of surface tension also. For example, clothes are washed more. Temperature Regulation.To maintain a constant temperature, the body must be able to respond to changes in the temperature of its surroundings. When the outside temperature drops, nerve endings near the skin surface sense the change and communicate it to the hypothalamus

### Surface Tension - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

The surface tension of a liquid decreases with increase in temperature and vanishes at the critical temperature. All values given in the table are for temperatures of 20 o C, except that for gold which is for 1130 o C. The following observations can be explained in terms of surface tension: (a) A pond-skater can walk on water but a person cannot Surface tension impacts and gives early morning dew drops their spherical shape because the moisture in the atmosphere condenses on the beads and leaves due to surface tension. 2. On a waxed car, the raindrops fall on the surface of the car and they smoothly slide down the side keeping the car neat and clean. 3

### Surface Tension of Water in contact with Ai

Surface tension is the force on the surface of liquids that allows it to form cohesive drops. This is sometimes called interfacial tension and it varies depending on the liquid and the surface it is interacting with. Since surface tension can manifest in many ways, there are several ways to measure it surface tension of water is affected by temperature as it starts to evaporate when there is hot temperature but due to unnatural medium its surface starts to freeze when the temperature outside is. Surface shape and the calculation of surface tension from maximum bubble pressure The surface tension of liquid metals and its temperature dependence Video microscopic high-temperature measurement of surface tension

### What Is Surface Tension? Definition and Experiment

Surface tension is measured in units of millinewtons per meter. Most liquids, such as gasoline or water, have surface tension values between 20 and 72 millinewtons per meter. Gallium alloys, which. Surface Tension Function SFT = A + BT + CT², T = temperature (°C) SFT = Surface Tension (mN/m) A, mN/m 53.48 ± 0.07 from regression, LB IV/16, 1961-98 [3], p. 144 Tmin (0 °C) B, mN/m/K -0.14154 Tmax (100 °C) C, mN/m/K² 4.9567E-5 Dispersion. Water has high surface tension, which means the molecules are pulling each other on the surface very strongly. The pulling is so strong that when you first sprinkle pepper onto the water, it sits on top of the water instead of sinking into it. When soap is added in the middle, it breaks the surface tension there but surface tension still exists.

Huili Yi, Jianxiang Tian, Corresponding states correlation for temperature dependent surface tension of normal saturated liquids, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 10.1142/S0217979214501690, 28, 25, (1450169), (2014) Surface tension is needed for life as we know it. Its fundamental and it is also an important parameter in many industrial processes. The surface tension of water is about 72 mN/m at room temperature which is one of the highest surface tension for liquid. Surface tension; Comments. Show comments (3) About the author Surface tension is a property that arises due to the intermolecular forces of attraction among the molecules of the liquid. Greater are the intermolecular forces of attraction, higher is the surface tension of that liquid. 5)Effect of temperature on surface tension. The surface tension of liquid generally decreases with increase of temperature. Does Temperature Affect Surface Tension? I took two cups of water, one hot, one cold, and a pile of pennies. The cups were filled to the brim, and I used a pair of tweezers to slip pennies under the water until a drop spilled from each cup

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